Analysis of factors influencing length of stay in Emergency Department Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta Indonesia

Mrs Happy Kusumawati1, Mrs Judith Magarey, Mrs Philippa  Rasmussen

1University Of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 2Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 3Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP), Jakarta, Indonesia

Background: Studies have reported that the number of Emergency Department (ED) visits have increased to 7% annually in developed countries. The increasing demand for emergency care and complex procedures may cause prolonged length of stay (LOS). Input, throughput, and output factors are associated with ED LOS. Prolonged ED LOS has an impact on quality of care and patient outcomes. The main purpose of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to LOS by measuring the average time in each stage of patient journey in the Emergency Department at Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta.

Methods: A descriptive study was conducted with a cross-sectional, retrospective design. The participants (n:139) were patients aged 18 years or over who presented to ED at Dr. Sardjito Hospital during seven consecutive days. Data were gathered by reviewing patients’ notes using a data collection tool modified from the standardised tool developed by Martin in 2011. Descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests were utilised to analyse data.

Results: Data from a total of 139 patients were included for analysis. The percentage of ED visits completed in 8 hours or less was 68.3%. In bivariate analysis, triage, specialist consultation and need for admission were associated with increased ED LOS (p<0.05). There was no significant difference of response time (arrival to triage) for discharged patients and those admitted, 2.4 mins and 6.3 mins, respectively (p 0.189). However, there was a significant difference of laboratory turnaround time for discharged patients and admitted, 13.37 mins and 69.27 mins, respectively (p 0.000). For discharged patients, time between assessment by doctor and the decision to discharge contributed to prolonged LOS (101.09 mins) while for admitted patients, waiting for bed availability contributed to prolonged LOS (281.45 mins).


My name is Happy Indah Kusumawati; I am a staff member in Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia. I was a graduate of Universitas Gadjah Mada in 2010. Currently, I am studying Master of Nursing Science at the University of Adelaide. Related to my specialty in Emergency Nursing, I have conducted some studies about emergency and disaster nursing. In addition to teaching and research, I dedicate myself in being involved in community service in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. If you would like to know more about me, please contact me through email at